Review of La ciencia periferica: ciencia y sociedad en Venezuela by Elena Diaz; Yolanda Texera; Hebe Vessuri; Ciencia academica en la Venezuela moderna by Hebe Vessuri. Social Studies of Science, Vol. 17, No. 3 (Aug., 1987), pp. 569-573. Rapid expansion of formal education and academic institutions in a country known for importing practically all manufactured goods from abroad, with traditionally high illiteracy rates and low enrollments at secondary schools, could not happen without tensions and difficulties. In the early sixties Venezuelan university students staged a violent and unsuccessful insurrection against the government. According to Rafael Rengrifo, who writes about sociology in Ciencia Academica, at the onset students did not try to link their political life with what they learned in school. After the repression of the sixties, however, they turned their militancy inwards the university system. The Venezuelan version of the 1968 movements became known as "La Renovación". It was a revolution within the universities, affecting the way they were to be governed, the relations between students and teachers, and, for sociology, the enthronement of Marxism as a new orthodoxy. Two years later, the government intervened at the Central University and the revolutionary euphoria was replaced by demobilization, while militant Marxism changed into althusserianism, poulantzasism and dependentism. After that, a modus vivendi gradually developed: control of educational institutions (and of many other sectors of the public bureaucracy) where left to the intellectuals, including the remnants of the revolutionaires of the 1960's, while the government tried to run its business in alliance with foreign interests, the traditional political parties and some less militant technical elites. It was a clear case of political cooptation of the left, very much in the Mexican style(3), to be paid with surpluses from the oil industry. This drama of rapid social mobility, political radicalization and cooptation provides the background for the 21 articles brought together under the intellectual leadership of Hebe Vessuri in these two volumes.